Local and Global Localization for Mobile Robots using Visual Landmarks

Our mobile robot system uses scale-invariant visual landmarks to localize itself and build a 3D map of the environment simultaneously. As image features are not noise-free, we carry out error analysis and use Kalman Filters to track the 3D landmarks, resulting in a database map with landmark positional uncertainty. By matching a set of landmarks as a whole, our robot can localize itself globally based on the database containing landmarks of sufficient distinctiveness. Experiments show that recognition of position within a map without any prior estimate can be achieved using the scale-invariant landmarks.